Discussion slides 24–30 can then be used to relate this to genomic mutations and the subsequent effects on protein sequence and protein function. It also connects the content of molecular biology with that of genetics by helping students understand mutations, the effects of mutations on protein sequence, and the relationship between genetic mutations, protein sequence, and disease (genotype → phenotype). A series of questions designed to walk the students through determining the various consequences of alterations in the coding sequence. Suppose an individual has a nutrient deficiency due to poor diet and is missing a particular amino acid. It consists of just a few kinds of atoms: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus. (B) A common strategy that students first identify is to use different lengths of “codons” for each letter. Codons that have a length of three shapes is the minimum consistent-length codon strategy required to code for the letters of the English alphabet (4^3 = 64) (Figure 2). To access a great visual representation of this process visit the Learn.Genetics site and study the Central Dogma interactive graphic. Mutation. If a classroom atmosphere has been established in which it is fine to take a risk and be wrong, one of the groups that devised a strategy similar to that shown in Figure 1B should be asked to present their strategy, followed by discussion of the strengths and weaknesses. In the central dogma … Teachers can easily adjust the conditions that students investigate as part of the homework to relate with phenotypes or diseases that have been, or will be, discussed further in their own particular course, as long as those conditions have a clear genetic component. During this modeling activity, students act out transcription and translation by moving around the classroom with assigned roles as the DNA, mRNA, tRNA, proteins, etc.. Day 1 of 4--Engineering a Calorimeter: What is a Prototype? Protein Synthesis Notes Page. 1. Contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic genetic "traffic signals". 2. Labs and Activities. central dogma and recombinant DNA ... Our goal was to develop a manipulative activity using inexpensive but graphic materials. Note: In our experience, a large portion of students will start to generate codes resembling those shown in Figure 1B, in which the four single shapes represent letters A–D, then a series of two shapes in a row represent letters D–T, followed by using three shapes in a row to represent U–Z. 8. As with all models, this model has some limitations. Mutation PPT. Lighting up the central dogma to assign quantitative and predictive meaning to arrows . Before we can explain that, we need to introduce a few other concepts that are important to understand the gene concept. The sequence allows students to think through core concepts and investigate connections using hands-on tasks and assignments that guide construction of student understanding. Biotechnology. A fundamental principle called the Central Dogma describes how genetic information flows from the DNA in our genetic material via RNA to proteins which in turn carryout all of the cellular functions necessary for life. In the questions associated with this section (see handout packet, p. 4), students review why the codons need to be at least three consecutive shapes, and why start and stop codons are required. All rights reserved. Having extensively used the genetic code during this activity, students tend to have no problem making the transition from uracil to thymine, or learning the intermediate step of transcription that was ignored in this activity. Modeling the Central Dogma (Gene to Protein), Modeling DNA and Protein Synthesis Lab (Extension), The Central Dogma (#1 of 6): Genetic Material. Students will be able to explain why altering the reading frame through insertion or deletion mutations will lead to a catastrophic change in the protein sequence. Students with the DNA card pairs line up in the classroom area designated "nucleus". Discussion slides, available for download in PowerPoint or PDF format: PowerPoint: https://www.dropbox.com/s/39vldfxlr2lwjmf/Discussion%20slides.pptx?dl=0, PDF: https://www.dropbox.com/s/x0z2jc6lw9xmqpq/Discussion%20slides.pdf?dl=0, Guide to using the discussion slides (description of slides), available at https://www.dropbox.com/s/mxb9nreylanamzp/Guide_to_using_slides.docx?dl=0. Students will be able to explain why three consecutive shapes are required to adequately code for all 26 letters of the English alphabet, and why this results in codon degeneracy. 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